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Introduction to electronics, 8 voltage schemes pave the way for you.

It's important to lay a good foundation. In this topic, we will learn about voltage. Voltage, al

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It's important to lay a good foundation. In this topic, we will learn about voltage. Voltage, also known as potential difference or potential difference, is a physical quantity that measures the energy difference of unit charge in electrostatic field due to different potentials. It is the foundation of voltage electronics, and several voltage circuit schemes are sorted out. You can learn the voltage knowledge through the process of voltmeter design and rated voltage circuit design.


1. Intelligent voltmeter, AC voltmeter and electric energy measurement based on single chip microcomputer.

The intelligent voltmeter design based on STC15 single chip microcomputer can measure single DC voltage, multi-channel DC voltage, AC voltage and frequency, and can also measure AC electric energy and power through secondary development (note: the AC measuring part is connected to the third-party electric energy metering module through serial port, so this circuit does not include the AC measuring design circuit).





2. It can measure the DC voltage below 30V, which is a reference for the design of simple 51 single-chip voltmeter.

Using a simple method to make a 51 single-chip microcomputer voltmeter can measure the DC voltage below 30V. Without an accurate voltmeter, it is impossible to measure its accuracy. However, after testing and comparing with an ordinary multimeter, it is found that its accuracy is good. Its accuracy mainly depends on the accuracy of the reference voltage supplied by it, the number of AD conversion bits, and the accuracy of the voltage divider resistor. But it is good for ordinary voltage measurement.



3. It is suitable for high-speed current-to-voltage circuits that need a voltage range of 5V to 30V.

The design of TIDA-00976 TI is a high-speed current-voltage circuit. This design is specially optimized, and it is suitable for current sensing applications that require high-speed current measurement in the positive power rail within the voltage range of 5V to 30V. This design will reduce the common-mode voltage in 30V voltage, and generate an output voltage centered at 2.5V, which can be sampled by analog-to-digital converter (ADC). By using different precision references, the output common mode can be easily changed.




4, 51 Single Chip Microcomputer Simple Digital Voltmeter

1. You can set the upper and lower limits of voltage alarm value. After pressing the "Set" key, you can press the "↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑

2. The set voltage alarm value is saved in the EEPROM of the single chip microcomputer, which has the function of saving in case of power failure.

3. The default upper and lower limits are H: 5.0V L: 0.0V.

4. This system has four voltage detection channels, which can be simultaneously detected and displayed on the display screen.

5. When the voltage measured by one or more of the four channels exceeds the set upper and lower limits, the buzzer will give an alarm.

……




5. Battery voltage tester

This circuit is mainly used to measure the voltage of dry battery, and the pure hardware circuit detects the voltage, without using single chip microcomputer to collect the voltage AD. The core circuit is the comparator circuit.

This circuit uses 8 indicator lights to directly indicate the current battery voltage (1V-1.7V). In portable devices without MCU control, this circuit can be used to display the remaining battery power (here, the power is not appropriate).




Design of Simple Voltmeter with 6-and 4-digit Digital Tube Display

This circuit mainly uses STC89C52 chip and ADC0804 chip to complete a simple voltmeter, which can measure the input analog DC voltage of 0-5V and display it through a four-in-one LED digital tube. (ADC0804 is a successive approximation 8-bit single-channel A/D conversion chip, which can convert analog to digital, and its conversion time is about 100us.) This circuit consists of three modules: A/D conversion module, data processing module and display module. A/D conversion is mainly accomplished by ADC0804 chip, which is responsible for converting the collected analog quantity into the corresponding digital quantity and then transmitting it to the data processing module. The data processing is completed by the chip STC89C52, which is responsible for processing the digital quantity transmitted by ADC0804, generating the corresponding display code and sending it to the display module for display.




7. System design scheme of 5V voltmeter (AD0832-SEG4)

Digital voltmeter is referred to as DVM for short. The basic principle of digital voltmeter is to convert the input analog voltage signal into digital signal, and then output and display it. The function of A/D converter is to convert continuously changing analog signals into discrete digital signals. The basic structure of the converter is composed of sample and hold, quantization and coding. Therefore, AD conversion is the core component of this design. The input analog quantity is converted by AD converter, and then the driver drives the display to output, and the measured digital voltage is obtained.

A digital voltmeter is designed by using single-chip AT89C51 and ADC0832, which can measure the DC voltage between 0-5V, with two-digit digital display. Under the action of single chip microcomputer, it can monitor the input voltage values of two channels, using 8-bit serial A/D converter, 8-bit resolution, successive approximation type, and the reference voltage is 5V; Two-position LED can be used for alternate display or single-channel selection display, and the display accuracy is 0.1V..



8. [Open source] SimpleUI-Logger, a simple voltage/current acquisition device

As a lover of electronic manufacturing, it is sometimes necessary to measure the power consumption of some circuits, such as low-power Bluetooth devices powered by lithium batteries. Although the multimeter with PC interface is accurate, it lacks flexibility, and two multimeters are needed to measure voltage and current at the same time. Therefore, this simple voltage/current acquisition circuit is designed after work to meet the general measurement requirements in the electronic manufacturing process.

The circuit STM32F072 is used as the core controller for voltage and current sampling and communication. Because the accuracy of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated by MCU is limited, the accuracy of ADC should be effectively utilized while keeping the cost low in the design process, so as to achieve the design target parameters.


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